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 تراکم سوخت، موتور چهار زمانه

در سال 1867، نیکلاس اتو و اگن لانجن موتور اتمسفری خود را در یک نمایشگاه جهانی در پاریس به بازار عرضه کردند. آنها توانسته بودند که با غلبه بر پاره ای مشکلات فنی، بازده موتور خود را تا 30% افزایش دهند. موتور اتو مورد استقبال عموم قرار گرفت و در طول ده سال بیش از پنج هزار عدد از آن به فروش رفت. آنها با درآمد حاصل از فروش این موتور، کمپانی خود را تأسیس نمودند تا در آن به تحقیقاتشان ادامه دهند.

همه موتورهایی که تا آن زمان ساخته شده بودند یک ایراد مشترک داشت و آن این بود که سوخت به طور منظم و آهسته مصرف نمی شد. در نتیجه حرکت نیز نامنظم بود. سرانجام در سال 1867 اتو با ابداع موتور چهارزمانه این مشکل را حل کرد. طرح پیشنهادی او توسط ویلهلم میباک تکمیل شد و در پایان همان سال به تولید انبوه رسید.

در شکل زیر یک ماشین درون سوز چهار زمانه ای نمایش داده شده است.

پیستون در سیلندر چهار مرحله یا چهار رفت و برگشت انجام می‌دهد. از این رو چنین موتورهایی را موتور چهارهنگامه نیز می‌نامند. این چهار مرحله عبارتند از:

  1. مرحله مکش (تنفس): (Intake Stroke) در این مرحله پیستون مطابق شکل روبرو به پایین حرکت می‌کند و دریچه ورود بنزین و هوا باز و مخلوط قابل انفجار به درون سیلندر کشیده می‌شود.
  2. مرحله تراکم: (Compression Stroke) در این هنگام پیستون به بالا حرکت می‌کند و درحالی که دریچه ورود سوخت و دود بسته شده است، مخلوط بنزین و هوا متراکم می‌شود و حجم آن به یک ششم تا یک هشتم حجم اولیه کاهش می‌یابد.
  3. مرحله انفجار: (Power Stroke) پیش از آنکه پیستون به بالاترین نقطه خود در مرحله تراکم برسد، یک جرقه الکتریکی در مخلوط سوخت ایجاد می‌شود و سوخت با سرعت زیاد می‌سوزد. از تبدیل انرژی شیمیایی انرژی گرمایی بسیار زیادی تولید می‌شود.این گرما فشار گازهای سوخته شده را بالا می‌برد و فشار حاصل به دیواره سیلندر و به سطح پیستون اثر می‌کند. پیستون تحت تأثیر این فشار زیاد با سرعت به پایین رانده می‌شود و مقدار زیادی انرژی به میل لنگ منتقل می‌کند و سبب حرکت دورانی آن می‌شود. این فرآیند را ضربه قدرت می‌نامند.
  4. مرحله خروج دود: (Ejection Stroke) دراین هنگام پیستون که پایین رفته بود به طرف بالا حرکت می‌کند و دریچه خروج دود باز می‌شود و در نتیجه گازهای سوخته شده از سیلندر خارج و از راه لوله اگزوز به فضای بیرون رانده می‌شود.

برای مشاهده نمودار P-V موتور چهارزمانه بر روی علامت بالای شکل و سپس بر روی کلید مثلثی شکل پایین آن کلیک نمایید. برای نمایش نام مراحل نیز می‌توانید موس خود را بر روی حرف T بالای شکل نگه دارید.

در موتور چهارزمانه، پیستون فقط در یکی از مراحل به میل لنگ شتاب می‌دهد. این امر باعث می‌شود که حرکت میل لنگ یکنواخت نباشد. برای حل این مشکل چند سیلندر را در کنار هم قرار می‌دهند و آنها را به یک میل لنگ متصل می‌کنند. در هر زمان یکی از پیستونها در حال شتاب دادن به میل لنگ است، و در نتیجه حرکت میل لنگ یکنواخت خواهد بود.

به این موضوع توجه کنید که موتور 4 سیلندر با موتور چهارزمانه فرق می‌کند. در حقیقت در هر سیلندر یک چرخه چهارزمانه روی می‌دهد. در تصاویر زیر چند موتور مختلف را در حین کار مشاهده می‌کنید.

موتور 4 سیلندر
موتور 4 سیلندر
موتور 4 سیلندر

همانطور که در شکلها مشاهده می‌کنید، پیستونها را می‌توان به چند روش مختلف به میل لنگ متصل کرد. ولی نحوه قرار گرفتن سیلندرها در بازده و اندازه موتور تأثیر زیادی دارد.

بسیاری از موتورهای پیشرفته امروزی نیز کم و بیش ساختار مشابه موتور اتو دارد.





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